Munich as a major
industrial center and transportation hub was also an
important target of the Allied bombers.
The city was
attacked many times during the war. However, the raids
began fairly late compared to other large cities.
They took place
20 September 1942
10 March 1943
7 September 1943
2 October 1943
11 July 1944
13 July 1944
16 July 1944
19 July 1944
26 November 1944
7/8 January 1945
From the summer 1944
onwards the attacks were intensified. In July alone, the
U.S. Air Force dropped one million incendiary bombs on
At this time, the
bombing squadrons did not need long approach paths, they
started out from Italy.
The attacks in the
course of 1943 were already quite severe, the recovery
of the victims took up to three days because the devices
used to the rescue could not be applied due to the heat
under the rubble.
In early November
1943 such valuable cultural buildings were obliterated
as the Bavarian State Library, the National Theatre and
eighteen heritage-protected churches.
But also such
important social facilities were hit as a children's
asylum, the municipal orphanage, the institution for the
blind and seven nursing homes for the elderly.
However, the most
severe damage was caused to the city almost at the end
of the war.
On 7 and 8 January
1945 over 2,000 tons of bombs were dropped in two waves
on the downtown. An equally massive air attack on 19
January 1945 alone killed 505 people.
In the course of
this strike further culturally and historically valuable
buildings and cultural heritage were destroyed,
including the Cathedral of Our Lady.
In a total, 73
sorties were flown against the city.